Renal Physiology MCQ Ques. and Answers

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1. Renal blood flow falls
A. About 10 per cent when arterial pressure falls 10 per cent below normal
B. About 5 per cent when metabolic activity in the kidney falls by 5 per cent
C. During emotional stress
D. After moderate hemorrhage
E. Gradually from the inner medulla to the outer cortex per unit weight of tissue
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

2. Urea
A. And glucose have similar molar concentrations in normal blood.
B. Concentration rises in tubular fluid as the glomerular filtrate passes down the nephron.
C. Is actively secreted by the renal tubular cells into the tubular fluid.
D. Concentration in blood may rise ten-fold after a high protein meal.
E. Causes a diuresis when its blood concentration is increased
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

3. Voluntary micturition
A. Depends on the integrity of a lumbar spinal reflex arc.
B. Is not possible after sensory denervation of the bladder.
C. Involves stimulation of the detrusor muscle in the bladder by autonomic sympathetic nerves
D. Is normally accompanied by some reflux of bladder contents into the ureters.
E. Is inhibited during ejaculation.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

4. The proximal convoluted tubules
A. Reabsorb most of the sodium ions in glomerular filtrate.
B. Reabsorb most of the chloride ions in glomerular filtrate.
C. Reabsorb most of the potassium ions in glomerular filtrate.
D. Contain juxtaglomerular cells which secrete rennin.
E. Contain the main target cells for antidiuretic hormone.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

5. The renal clearance of
A. Inulin provides an estimate of glomerular filtration rate.
B. Chloride increases after an injection of aldosterone.
C. PAH falls when the PAH load exceeds the Tm for PAH.
D. Urea is lower than that of inulin.
E. Inulin is independent of its plasma concentration.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

6. The collecting ducts in the kidney
A. Can actively transport water molecules into the urine
B. Are the site of most of renal water reabsorption
C. Are rendered impermeable to water by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
D. Pass through a region of exceptional hypertonicity.
E. Determine to a large extent the final osmolality of urine.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

7. Aldosterone
A. Is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla.
B. Production ceases following removal of the kidneys and their juxtaglomerular cells.
C. Production decreases in treatment with drugs which block angiotensin-converting enzyme.
D. Secretion results in increased potassium reabsorption by the nephron.
E. Secretion results in a fall in urinary pH.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

8. As fluid passes down the proximal convoluted tubule, there is a fall of more than 50 per cent in the
A. Concentration of sulfate ions
B. Concentration of sodium ions
C. Concentrations of amino acids
D. Concentration of potassium ions
E. Rate of filtrate flow in the tubules
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

9. In normal healthy people, urinary
A. Specific gravity ranges from 1.010–1.020.
B. Osmolality ranges from 200–400 mosmol/liter.
C. Color is due to small quantities of bile pigments.
D. pH falls as dietary protein rises.
E. Calcium excretion is increased by parathormone.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

10. Aldosterone secretion tends to raise the volume of
A. Plasma.
B. Interstitial fluid
C. Intracellular fluid
D. Urine
E. Cerebrospinal fluid
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. False

11. The renal clearance of
A. Bicarbonate is similar to that of glucose.
B. PAH is nearer 600 than 1200 ml/minute in the average adult.
C. Creatinine provides an estimate of renal plasma flow.
D. Phosphate is decreased by parathormone.
E. Protein is normally zero.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

12. Potassium
A. Is actively secreted in the distal convoluted tubule.
B. Is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.
C. Deficiency favors hydrogen ion secretion in the distal tubule.
D. Excretion is determined largely by potassium intake.
E. Blood levels tend to rise in patients with acute renal failure taking a normal diet.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

13. Secretion of renin
A. Occurs in the stomach during infancy
B. Is stimulated by the hormone angiotensin I
C. Leads to raised levels of angiotensin II in the blood
D. Is stimulated by a fall in extracellular fluid volume
E. Inhibits ACTH secretion by the pituitary gland
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

14. In chronic renal failure
A. Glomerular filtration rate may fall by 70 per cent before the condition gives rise to symptoms.
B. The specific gravity of the urine tends to be elevated, e.g. about 1.030.
C. Blood PCO2 tends to be low.
D. Ionized calcium levels in the blood tend to be high.
E. Anemia is common.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

15. Diabetes insipidus (deficiency of antidiuretic hormone) causes a fall in the
A. Osmolality of the urine
B. Reabsorption of water from the proximal tubules
C. Extracellular but not intracellular fluid volume
D. Extracellular fluid osmolality
E. Intracellular fluid osmolality
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. False

16. The cystometrogram shows
A. A plot of bladder pressure on the ordinate axis against bladder volume on the abscissa
B. Little rise in pressure with rise in volume at low bladder volumes.
C. A steep rise in pressure when volume rises above 100 ml
D. That females generate higher pressures during micturition than males.
E. That patients with chronic urinary tract obstruction can generate higher than normal micturition pressures.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

17. Treatment with an aldosterone antagonist causes a fall in
A. Urine volume
B. Body potassium
C. Body sodium
D. Blood volume
E. Blood viscosity
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

18. Dialysis fluid used in the treatment of renal failure should contain the normal plasma levels of
A. Urea.
B. Potassium.
C. Osmolality.
D. Plasma proteins
E. Hydrogen ions
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

19. Long-standing obstruction of the urethra may cause
A. Enlargement of the prostate gland
B. Hypertrophy of the bladder muscle
C. Dilation of the ureters
D. Reduction of the glomerular filtration rate
E. An increase in residual volume in the bladder
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

20. Emptying of the bladder may be less effective if
A. The sympathetic nerves carrying afferent information from bladder to spinal cord are cut.
B. The pelvic nerves are cut
C. Anticholinergic drugs are administered.
D. Alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists are administered
E. Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists are administered
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

21. Renal transplantation for chronic renal failure in adults should
A. Be covered by immunosuppression even when the donor is the recipient’s identical twin.
B. Raise postoperative glomerular filtration rate to the 10–20 ml/minute level.
C. Correct abnormal calcium metabolism.
D. Correct anemia.
E. Abolish the need for further renal dialysis.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

22. Drugs, which interfere with active transport of sodium in the proximal tubule, tend to increase
A. Urine production
B. Plasma osmolality
C. Chloride excretion
D. Interstitial fluid volume
E. Plasma specific gravity
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

23. A drug, which inhibits carbonic anhydrase decreases
A. Bicarbonate formation and reabsorption in the kidney
B. Plasma bicarbonate levels
C. Blood pH
D. Urinary loss of potassium ions
E. Urinary volume and pH
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

24. A patient with chronic renal failure usually has an increased
A. Blood urea
B. Blood uric acid
C. Creatinine clearance
D. Acid–base disturbance when he or she vomits
E. Acid–base problem on a high protein diet
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

25. Cutting the sympathetic nerves to the bladder may cause
A. Difficulty in emptying the bladder
B. Loss of tone in the internal sphincter of the bladder
C. Loss of tone in the external sphincter of the bladder
D. Loss of pain sensation in the bladder
E. Infertility in the male
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

26. Sudden (acute) renal failure differs from gradual (chronic) renal failure in that
A. Potassium retention tends to be more severe.
B. Blood urea levels tend to be higher.
C. Depression of bone marrow activity is unlikely to occur.
D. Metabolic acidosis is usually not a problem.
E. Dietary protein restriction is unnecessary.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. False

27. In the treatment of someone with progressive renal failure
A. Protein should be excluded from the diet.
B. Water intake should be restricted to about 0.5 liter/day.
C. The diet should be potassium-free.
D. Adequate dietary iron intake prevents anemia.
E. The calorific value of the diet should be gradually reduced.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. False

28. A long-standing increase in arterial PCO2 (respiratory acidosis) leads to an increase in
A. Renal bicarbonate formation
B. Urinary ammonium salts
C. Plasma potassium concentration
D. The ratio of monohydrogen to dihydrogen phosphate in urine
E. Urinary bicarbonate excretion
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

29. A fall in plasma sodium concentration
A. May result from excessive production of ADH
B. Decreases intracellular fluid volume
C. May occur in people engaged in hard physical work in humid tropical climates
D. Reduces plasma osmolality
E. Is likely to cause thirst.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

30. Sodium retention
A. Occurs for several days after major surgery.
B. Occurs in response to secretion of aldosterone, but not cortisol.
C. Expands the extracellular fluid volume.
D. Expands the blood volume
E. Increases the severity of edema
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

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