Physiology MCQs Online

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1. Processes that require energy to move substances into and out of the cell without crossing through the cell membrane include:
a. Phagocytosis
b. Pinocytosis
c. Endocytosis
d. Exocytosis
e. All of the above
Correct answer (e) All of these are processes of membrane changes that engulf particles; all of these require ATP energy)

2. Membrane ion channels
A. Consist mainly of carbohydrate and lipid.
B. Have a specific structure for each ion species.
C. For sodium may be blocked by tetrodotoxin.
D. May be opened by a given change in transmembrane potential.
E. Remain open as long as the activating signal is present.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

3. The sodium pump:
a) Exchanges extracellular Na+ for intracellular K+
b) Is important for maintaining a constant cell volume
c) Can only be inhibited by metabolic poisons
d) Is an ion channel
ans
b) Is important for maintaining a constant cell volume

4. The resting membrane potential is mainly determined by:
a) the Cl- gradient
b) the Ca2+ gradient
c) the Na+ gradient
d) the K+ gradient
ans
d) the K+ gradient

5. The white blood cells actively involved in phagocytosis are:
a. Lymphocytes and eosinophils
b. Basophils and eosinophils
c. Basophils and neutrophils
d. Neutrophils and monocytes
e. Monocytes and lymphocytes
ans
(d) Neutrophils and Monocytes

6. Bleeding from a small cut in the skin
A. Is normally diminished by local vascular spasm.
B. Ceases within about five minutes in normal people.
C. Is prolonged in severe factor VIII (anti-hemophilic globulin) deficiency.
D. Is greater from warm skin than from cold skin.
E. Is reduced if the affected limb is elevated.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

7. Sodium depletion differs from sodium retention in that it causes a reduction in
A. Central venous pressure
B. Renin production
C. The specific gravity of the blood
D. Intracellular fluid volume
E. Total body mass
ans
A. True.
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

8. Sodium depletion differs from water depletion in that
A. Cardiovascular changes are less pronounced.
B. Intracellular fluid volume is less affected.
C. The hematocrit increases.
D. Thirst is more severe.
E. Antidiuretic hormone levels are higher.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. False

9. Red cell formation is increased
A. By giving vitamin B12 injections to healthy people on a normal diet
B. In blood donors one week after a blood donation
C. In patients with hemolytic anemia
D. By giving injections of erythropoietin to nephrectomized patients
E. In patients who have a raised blood reticulocyte count
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

10. Vitamin B12 deficiency may
A. Result from disease of the terminal part of the ileum.
B. Result in anemia with small RBCs well filled with hemoglobin.
C. Cause wasting (atrophy) of the gastric mucosa.
D. Cause a reduction in the circulating platelet level.
E. Cause pathological changes in the central nervous system.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

11. Normal human red cells:
a) Are released into the circulation as immature cells called reticulocytes.
b) Live in the blood for about 10 days.
c) Rely on mitochondria for their ATP production.
d) Are formed by budding off from large precursor cells called megakaryocytes.
ans
Normal human red cells: (a) Are released into the circulation as immature cells called reticulocytes.

12. People with blood group AB have antibodies to both A and B red cell antigens
a) True
b) False
ans
b) False

13. Cardiac muscle acts as a functional syncytium because it:
a. Has larger T-tubules
b. Has gap junctions between adjacent cells
c. Has a long refractory period
d. Consists of single nucleated cells
e. Is involuntary
ans: (b) Cardiac muscle acts as a functional syncytium because it has gap junctions between adjacent cells

14. Veins
a. Contain most of the blood volume
b. Have a sympathetic vasoconstrictor innervation
c. Receive nutrition from vasa vasorum arising from their lumen
d. Respond to distension by contraction of their smooth muscle
e. Undergo smooth muscle hypertrophy when exposed to high pressure through an arteriovenous fistula
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

15. With increasing distance from the heart, arterial
A. Walls contain relatively more smooth muscle than elastic tissue.
B. Flow has a greater tendency to be turbulent.
C. Mean pressure tends to rise slightly.
D. Pulse pressure tends to increase slightly.
E. PO2 falls appreciably.
ans
A. True
B. False
B. False
C. True
E. False

16. Which of the following statements concerning the control of the vasculature is correct?
a) Autoregulation refers to the nervous control of the blood vessels
b) Reactive hyperemia is due to vasodilatation caused by the accumulation of metabolites during a period of exercise.
c) Parasympathetic vasodilator fibers innervate the blood vessels of the exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract.
d) The diameter of the arterioles is entirely regulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
ans
c) Parasympathetic vasodilator fibers innervate the blood vessels of the exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract.

17. Which of the following statements concerning the cardiac output is correct?
a) Is increased by aldosterone released from the adrenal medulla.
b) Is increased by stimulation of the vagus nerve
c) Can be measured by dividing the oxygen consumption by the difference in PO2 of the venous and arterial blood.
d) Is largely determined by the end-diastolic volume
ans
d) Is largely determined by the end-diastolic volume

18. Which of the following statements regarding tissue fluid exchange are true? Select all that apply.
a) Solute exchange between the capillaries and tissues occurs mainly by diffusion.
b) The plasma proteins play an important role in tissue fluid exchange.
c) Capillary pressure depends mainly on venous pressure.
d) All of the fluid that passes from the capillaries to the tissues is returned to the blood via the lymphatic circulation.
e) The lymph has the same ionic composition as the plasma but has a higher oncotic pressure.
ans
a) Solute exchange between the capillaries and tissues occurs mainly by diffusion.
b) The plasma proteins play an important role in tissue fluid exchange.

19. Cortisol
A. Is bound in the plasma to an alpha globulin.
B. Is inactivated in the liver and excreted in the bile.
C. Injections lead to a rise in arterial pressure.
D. Inhibits release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland.
E. Is released with a circadian variation so that cortisol blood levels peak in the morning.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

20. Sudden complete loss of parathyroid function
A. Leads to skeletal muscle spasms
B. May be fatal if treatment is not given to raise the blood level of ionized calcium.
C. Causes hemorrhagic disease due to lack of calcium for hemostasis.
D. May be treated in the short-term by slow intravenous injection of calcium ions.
E. May be treated in the long-term by regular doses of vitamin D.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

21. Severe uncontrolled diabetes mellitus leads to a raised
A. H ion concentration in body fluids
B. Plasma K concentration
C. Urinary specific gravity and osmolality
D. Blood volume
E. Arterial PCO2
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

22. Which of the following processes are likely to be enhanced shortly after waking up? Select all that apply.
a) Growth hormone secretion
b) Glycogenesis
c) Lipolysis
d) Cortisol secretion
ans
a) Growth hormone secretion
c) Lipolysis
d) Cortisol secretion

23. Which of the following statements concerning thyroid function are correct? Select all that apply.
a) T3 and T4 stimulate the secretion of TSH by the anterior pituitary
b) People who have an under-active thyroid gland have a low BMR
c) A resting pulse rate of 65 beats per minute would suggest a diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis
d) Most of the iodide in the body is present in the thyroid gland
e) Thyroid hormones are essential for the early development and maturation of the central nervous system
ans
b) People who have an under-active thyroid gland have a low BMR
d) Most of the iodide in the body is present in the thyroid gland
e) Thyroid hormones are essential for the early development and maturation of the central nervous system

24. Which of the following is caused by vitamin D deficiency?
a. Rickets
b. Acromegaly
c. Addison’s disease
d. Cretinism
ans
a. Rickets

25. Which of the following statements regarding the adrenal gland are correct? Select all that apply.
a) Chromaffin cells are found in the adrenal medulla
b) Excess secretion of catecholamines will lead to hypertension.
c) The heart rate is reduced by circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline.
d) Increased catecholamine secretion stimulates lipolysis.
e) Adrenaline and noradrenaline are secreted by the adrenal cortex.
ans
a) Chromaffin cells are found in the adrenal medulla
b) Excess secretion of catecholamines will lead to hypertension.
d) Increased catecholamine secretion stimulates lipolysis.

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