Human Physiology MCQs Questions and Answers

Physiologyplus has put together Human Physiology MCQs (Questions and Answers), from various Physiology exams and tests for health colleges and universities, online Physiology courses, and other medical training programs. Taking our Physiology practice MCQs will help you earn better grades in your Physiology courses. This will pave the way for your medical degree,nursing degree, or other allied health degree. Best Wishes!

1. Ingestion of protein
A. Raises metabolic rate more than ingestion of equally calorific amounts of fat or carbohydrate
B. Tends to lower the pH of urine.
C. Permits the body to synthesize the essential amino acids
D. Yields more toxic metabolites than fat or carbohydrate
E. Should exceed 2 g/kg body weight/day to satisfy normal body requirements
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. False

2. Drinking a liter of water
A. Increases secretion of antidiuretic hormone
B. Reduces the plasma sodium concentration
C. Causes more osmolar change in portal venous than in systemic venous blood
D. Causes body cells to shrink
E. Decreases the specific gravity of the body
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

3. The Golgi apparatus is
A. Found in all eukaryotic cells.
B. A collection of complex tubules and vesicles
C. Well developed in cells with secretory activity
D. Associated with endoplasmic reticulum
E. Not conspicuous in neurons
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

4. Regarding the natural immune system:
a) Neutrophils only destroy bacteria circulating in the blood.
b) Macrophages use nitrous oxide to kill bacteria they have engulfed.
c) Complement kills bacteria prior to their uptake by phagocytes.
d) The monocytes of the blood are the precursors of tissue macrophages.
ans (d) The monocytes of the blood are the precursors of tissue macrophages.

5. Regarding the inflammatory response:
a) Tissue swelling is the first stage of the inflammatory response.
b) Mast cells secrete chemotactic agents that attract lymphocytes
c) Macrophages secrete vasoactive materials during the inflammatory response
d) The inflammatory response can be triggered by antibody binding to the surface of micro-organisms.
ans (b) Mast cells secrete chemotactic agents that attract lymphocytes

6. Regarding the lymphocytes:
a) The lymphocytes are the most abundant white cells of the blood.
b) Lymphocytes only leave the blood at sites of inflammation
c) B lymphocytes respond to antigens in the extracellular fluid
d) All B lymphocytes become plasma cells after they have been stimulated
ans (c) B lymphocytes respond to antigens in the extracellular fluid

7. Regarding the functions of T lymphocytes:
a) T lymphocytes mature in the thyroid gland
b) All T cells secrete cytotoxic materials
c) T cells respond to proteins on the surface of host cells
d) T cells secrete IgG when they are activated
ans (c) T cells respond to proteins on the surface of host cells

8. Increased sympathetic drive to the heart increases the
A. Rate of diastolic depolarization in sinoatrial node cells
B. Coronary blood flow
C. Rate of conduction in Purkinje tissue
D. Slope of the Frank–Starling (work versus stretch) curve of the heart
E. Ejection fraction of the left ventricle
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. True

9. The velocity of blood flow
A. In capillaries is low because they offer high resistance to flow.
B. In veins is greater than in venules.
C. Can fall to zero in the ascending aorta during diastole
D. Is greater towards the centre of large blood vessels than at the periphery.
E. In the circulation falls as the hematocrit falls.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. False

10. The strength of contraction of left ventricular muscle increases when
A. End-diastolic ventricular filling pressure rises.
B. Serum potassium levels rise.
C. Blood calcium levels fall.
D. Strenuous exercise is undertaken.
E. Peripheral resistance is increased as in hypertension.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

11. Growth hormone
A. Promotes positive nitrogen and phosphorus balance.
B. Secretion is under hypothalamic control.
C. Levels in the blood are higher in children than in adults.
D. Secretion surges during sleep.
E. Stimulates the liver to secrete somatomedins which regulate bone and cartilage growth.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

12. Parathormone
A. Secretion is regulated by a pituitary feedback control system
B. Acts directly on bone to increase bone resorption
C. Decreases the urinary output of calcium
D. Decreases phosphate excretion
E. Promotes absorption of calcium from the intestines
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

13. Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
A. Is released from nerve endings in the posterior pituitary gland.
B. Tends to raise the osmolality of plasma rise.
C. Increases the permeability of the cells in the loop of Henle to water
D. Secretion is little affected by changes in plasma osmolality of less than 10 per cent.
E. Secretion increases when plasma volume falls but osmolality is unchanged.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

14. Defecation is a reflex action
a. That is coordinated by reflex centers in the sacral cord.
b. Whose afferent limb carries impulses from stretch receptors in the colon
c. Whose efferent limb travels mainly in sympathetic autonomic nerves
d. Which is more likely to be initiated just after a meal than just before it
e. Which can be voluntarily inhibited or facilitated
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

15. Thirst sensation occurs when
a. Osmoreceptors in the sensory cortex are activated.
b. Blood osmolality is raised but blood volume is normal.
c. Blood volume is reduced but blood osmolality is normal.
d. The mouth is dry.
e. A patient has severe diabetic keto-acidosis
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

16. In the stomach
a. pH rarely falls below 4.0.
b. Pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid.
c. Ferrous iron is reduced to ferric iron by hydrochloric acid.
d. Acid secretion is inhibited by pentagastrin.
e. There is a rise in the bacterial count after histamine H1 receptor blockade.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. False

17. Intestinal secretions contain
a. Potassium in a concentration similar to that in extracellular fluid
b. Enzymes that are released when the vagus nerve is stimulated
c. Enzymes that hydrolyze disaccharides
d. Enzymes that hydrolyze monosaccharides
e. Enzymes that activate pancreatic proteolytic enzymes
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

18. Treatment with an aldosterone antagonist causes a fall in
A. Urine volume
B. Body potassium
C. Body sodium
D. Blood volume
E. Blood viscosity
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

19. Dialysis fluid used in the treatment of renal failure should contain the normal plasma levels of
A. Urea
B. Potassium
C. Osmolality
D. Plasma proteins
E. Hydrogen ions
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

20. Long-standing obstruction of the urethra may cause
A. Enlargement of the prostate gland
B. Hypertrophy of the bladder muscle
C. Dilation of the ureters
D. Reduction of the glomerular filtration rate
E. An increase in residual volume in the bladder
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

21. Regarding the role of the basal ganglia in motor control
a) Disorders of the basal ganglia produce a marked loss of both sensation and motor control.
b) Parkinsonism is caused by neuronal degeneration within the substantia nigra.
c) The globus pallidus projects directly to the cerebral cortex.
d) Acetylcholine is the predominant neurotransmitter of the substantia nigra.
ans (b) Parkinsonism is caused by neuronal degeneration within the substantia nigra.

22. Regarding the role of the cerebellum
a) Purkinje neurons lie in the deep cerebellar nuclei.
b) The cerebellum has a direct efferent projection to the motor cortex.
c) Hemiballismus is a sign of cerebellar damage.
d) The cerebellar hemispheres control and receive inputs from ipsilateral muscles.
ans (d) The cerebellar hemispheres control and receive inputs from ipsilateral muscles.

23. Regarding the electroencephalogram (EEG)
a) The normal EEG of an awake person is dominated by alpha waves
b) During deep sleep the EEG is always dominated by delta waves
c) The presence of theta waves in the EEG of an awake child is indicative of cerebral pathology.
d) The EEG can be used to monitor the health of the brain
ans (d) The EEG can be used to monitor the health of the brain

24. Regarding receptors in the skin
a) All skin receptors are encapsulated
b) The receptive fields of touch receptors are uniform in area
c) The nociceptors of the skin are bare nerve endings.
d) All sensory information from the skin reaches the brain via the dorsal column pathway.
ans (c) The nociceptors of the skin are bare nerve endings.

25. The oxygen content of mixed venous blood is
A. Measured using blood sampled from the right atrium.
B. Increased during generalized muscular exercise
C. Increased in a warm environment
D. Increased in cyanide poisoning
E. Decreased in circulatory failure
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

26. Bronchial asthma is likely to be relieved by
A. Stimulation of cholinergic receptors
B. Stimulation of beta adrenoceptors
C. Histamine aerosols
D. Drugs which stabilize mast cell membranes
E. Glucocorticoids
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

27. Air in the pleural cavity (pneumothorax)
A. Allows intrapleural pressure to rise to atmospheric pressure
B. Causes the underlying lung to collapse by compressing it
C. Increases the functional residual capacity
D. Leads to a slight outward movement of the chest wall
E. Reduces vital capacity
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

28. A raised blood pH and bicarbonate level is consistent with
A. Metabolic acidosis
B. Partly compensated respiratory alkalosis
C. A reduced PCO2
D. Chronic renal failure with a raised PCO2
E. A history of persistent vomiting of gastric contents
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

29. A patient with partly compensated respiratory acidosis
A. Must have a raised PCO2
B. May have a reduced hydrogen ion concentration [H]
C. Must have a raised bicarbonate concentration [HCO3]
D. May have evidence of renal compensation
E. May have respiratory failure due to hypoventilation
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

30. For normal development and fertility of spermatozoa there must be
A. Secretion of testosterone
B. Secretion of luteinizing hormone
C. Secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone
D. A testicular temperature of 37°C
E. A sperm count of more than 1010/ml
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

31. In the mammary glands
A. Milk formation is stimulated by estrogen and progesterone.
B. Milk formation can be depressed by hypothalamic activity.
C. Maintenance of lactation depends on suckling.
D. Lactation ceases if the anterior pituitary gland is destroyed
E. Milk ejection ceases if the posterior pituitary gland is destroyed
ans
A. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

32. The male post-pubertal state differs from the pre-pubertal in that
A. The gonads are responsive to gonadotropic hormones.
B. There is a greater output of l7-ketosteroids in the urine.
C. Skeletal muscle is stronger per unit mass of tissue.
D. The circulating level of follicle-stimulating hormone is higher.
E. Hypothalamic output of gonadotropin-releasing factors is greater.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

33. In the placenta
A. Fetal and maternal blood mix freely in the sinusoids.
B. The PO2 in sinusoidal blood is similar to that in maternal arterial blood.
C. The barrier to oxygen diffusion is much greater than in alveoli.
D. Fetal blood in umbilical veins has a PO2 within 10 per cent of that in maternal sinusoids.
E. Fetal blood becomes more than 50 per cent saturated with oxygen.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

34. During pregnancy, there is an increase in
A. Maternal blood volume to twice the normal level
B. Peripheral resistance
C. Venous tone
D. Ligament laxity
E. Maternal parathormone secretion
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

35. Adaptation for vision in poor light is
a. Complete after 2–3 minutes
b. Due mainly to dilatation of the pupil
c. Due to regeneration of rod but not cone pigments
d. Faster if red goggles are worn before entering the dark environment
e. More effective for peripheral than central vision
ans
a. False
b. False
c. False
d. True
e. True

36. The basilar membrane of the cochlea vibrates [Select all that apply]
a. At the same frequency as the applied sound
b. With an amplitude, which is proportional to the frequency of the applied sound
c. With an amplitude, which is proportional to the loudness of the applied sound
d. Along more of its length when the applied sound has a high rather than a low frequency
e. Mainly at the base of the cochlea for the sound frequencies commonly used in speech
ans
a. True
b. False
c. True
d. False
e. True

JOIN OUR NEWSLETTER
I agree to have my personal information transfered to MailChimp ( more information )
Join over 3.000 visitors who are receiving our newsletter and learn how to make more distinctions in physiology, excel in standard physiology examinations and become a professional in physiology
We hate spam. Your email address will not be sold or shared with anyone else.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *