Human Physiology MCQ

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1. Tissues are aggregates of the same type of cell
a) True
b) False
Ans (b) False
Tissues are usually formed from a number of different types of cell, which co-operate to perform a particular function.

2. The principal extracellular cation is:
a) Potassium (K+)
b) Sodium (Na+)
c) Chloride (Cl-)
d) Calcium (Ca2+)
Ans (b) Sodium (Na+)
Sodium is the principal extracellular cation and potassium is the principal intracellular cation. Cl- is the principal extracellular anion.

3. The resting membrane potential is mainly determined by?:
a) the Cl- gradient
b) the Ca2+ gradient
c) the Na+ gradient
d) the K+ gradient
Ans (d) the K+ gradient
The resting membrane potential is determined by the K+ gradient because there are many more open K+ channels than Na+ channels. Consequently the resting membrane potential is close to the K+ equilibrium potential. Chloride ions distribute passively to mirror the potassium gradient.

4. The Golgi apparatus is
A. Found in all eukaryotic cells.
B. A collection of complex tubules and vesicles
C. Well developed in cells with secretory activity
D. Associated with endoplasmic reticulum
E. Not conspicuous in neurons
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

5. Brown fat is
A. Relatively more abundant in adults than in infants
B. Richer in mitochondria than ordinary fat
C. More vascular than ordinary fat
D. Stimulated to generate more heat when its parasympathetic nerve supply is stimulated
E. Is more important than shivering in neonatal thermoregulation
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

6. Blood group antigens (agglutinogens) are:
A. Carried on the haemoglobin molecule
B. Beta globulins
C. Equally immunogenic
D. Not present in fetal blood.
E. Inherited as recessive Mendelian characteristics
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

7. Total body water, expressed as a percentage of body weight
A. Can be measured with an indicator dilution technique using deuterium oxide.
B. Is smaller on average in women than in men.
C. Rises following injection of posterior pituitary extracts.
D. Falls during starvation
E. Is less than 80 per cent in young adults
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

8. Breakdown of erythrocytes in the body
A. Occurs when they are 6–8 weeks old.
B. Takes place in the reticulo-endothelial system.
C. Yields iron, most of which is excreted in the urine.
D. Yields bilirubin, which is carried by plasma protein to the liver.
E. Is required for the synthesis of bile salts
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. False

9. A person with group A blood
A. Has anti-B antibody in the plasma
B. May have the genotype AB
C. May have a parent with group O blood
D. May have children with group A or group O blood only
E. Whose partner is also A can only have children of groups A or O
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

10. Blood platelets assist in arresting bleeding by
A. Releasing factors promoting blood clotting
B. Adhering together to form plugs when exposed to collagen
C. Liberating high concentrations of calcium
D. Releasing factors causing vasoconstriction
E. Inhibiting fibrinolysis by blocking the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. False

11. When measuring blood pressure by the auscultatory method
A. The sounds that are heard are generated in the heart.
B. The cuff pressure at which the first sounds are heard indicate systolic pressure.
C. The cuff pressure at which the loudest sounds are heard indicate diastolic pressure.
D. Systolic pressure estimations tend to be lower than those made by the palpatory method
E. Wider cuffs are required for larger arms.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

12. The absolute refractory period in the ventricles
A. Is the period when the ventricles are completely inexcitable
B. Corresponds to the period of ventricular depolarization
C. Corresponds approximately to the period of ventricular contraction
D. Is shorter than the corresponding period in atrial muscle
E. Decreases during sympathetic stimulation of the heart
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

13. Vascular resistance
A. Increases by 50 per cent when the vascular radius is halved.
B. Is related to the thickness of the wall of the vessel.
C. Is related to the vessel’s length.
D. Is affected by blood viscosity.
E. Is greater in the capillary bed than in the arteriolar bed.
ans
A. False – By more than 90 per cent; resistance is related to the fourth power of the radius.
B. False – Vascular resistance is not related to wall thickness.
C. True – It is directly proportional to length.
D. True – Resistance is related to Viscosity X Length/Radius4
E. False – Total arteriolar resistance exceeds total capillary resistance though the reverse is true for single vessels.

14. Sympathetic drive to the heart is increased
A. In exercise
B. In excitement
C. In hypotension
D. When parasympathetic drive is decreased.
E. During a vasovagal attack
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

15. In an adult subject standing quietly at rest, venous pressure in the
A. Foot is approximately equal to arterial pressure at heart level.
B. Thorax decreases when the subject inhales.
C. Hand is subatmospheric when the hand is raised above the head.
D. Venous sinuses of the skull are subatmospheric.
E. Superior vena cava is an index of cardiac filling pressure.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

16. Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
A. Is released from nerve endings in the posterior pituitary gland.
B. Tends to raise the osmolality of plasma rise.
C. Increases the permeability of the cells in the loop of Henle to water
D. Secretion is little affected by changes in plasma osmolality of less than 10 per cent.
E. Secretion increases when plasma volume falls but osmolality is unchanged.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

17. Pancreatic glucagon
A. Is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.
B. Is a polypeptide
C. Output is inversely proportional to the blood glucose level.
D. Has a half-life in the circulation of 3–4 hours
E. Increases the breakdown of liver glycogen
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

18. The concentration of ionized calcium in plasma is
A. The main regulator of parathormone secretion
B. Less than the free ionized calcium concentration in intracellular fluid
C. About 50 per cent of the total plasma calcium concentration
D. Reduced when plasma pH rises.
E. Reduced when the plasma protein level rises.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

19. Cortisol
A. Is bound in the plasma to an alpha globulin.
B. Is inactivated in the liver and excreted in the bile.
C. Injections lead to a rise in arterial pressure.
D. Inhibits release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland
E. Is released with a circadian variation so that cortisol blood levels peak in the morning.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. True

20. When secretory activity in the thyroid gland increases
A. The gland takes up iodide from the blood at a faster rate.
B. Its follicles enlarge and fill with colloid.
C. The follicular cells become more columnar.
D. The follicular cells ingest colloid by endocytosis.
E. The blood level of thyrotropin (TSH) increases.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

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