GI Physiology MCQ Questions And Answers

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Physiologyplus has put together Gastrointestinal (GI) Physiology MCQs Questions and Answers, from various Physiology exams and tests for health colleges and universities, online Physiology courses, and other medical training programs. Taking our Physiology practice MCQs will help you earn better grades in your Physiology courses. This will pave the way for your medical degree,nursing degree, or other allied health degree. Best Wishes!

1. Which of the following are functions of the liver? Select all that apply.
a) Secretion of bile
b) Storage of vitamin C
c) Storage of glycogen
d) Synthesis of clotting factors
e) Synthesis of immunoglobulins
f) Detoxification of xenobiotics
ans
a) Secretion of bile
c) Storage of glycogen
d) Synthesis of clotting factors
f) Detoxification of xenobiotics

2. Regarding the bile:
a) Bile is synthesized in the gall bladder.
b) Bile salts are hydrophobic molecules.
c) Most bile salts are absorbed in the terminal ileum.
d) Bile salts are the breakdown products of hemoglobin.
ans (c) Most bile salts are absorbed in the terminal ileum.

3. The secretion of bile is controlled by cholecystokinin
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

4. Hepcidin decreases the capacity of enterocytes to transport iron.
a) True
b) False
ans (a) True

5. The liver and kidneys synthesize urea from ammonia derived from deamination of amino acids.
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

6. Regarding the regulation of plasma cholesterol [Select all that apply]
a) Most of the cholesterol used by the body is derived from the diet
b) Cholesterol circulates in the body as a lipoprotein complex
c) Cholesterol is an important constituent of plasma membranes
d) Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol
ans
b) Cholesterol circulates in the body as a lipoprotein complex
c) Cholesterol is an important constituent of plasma membranes
d) Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol

7. Which of the following statements about liver failure are correct? [Select all that apply]
a) Severe hyperglycemia develops
b) Plasma levels of ammonia will rise
c) The digestion and absorption of fats is impaired
d) The plasma oncotic pressure will rise
e) There is an increased chance of a venous thrombosis
ans (b) Plasma levels of ammonia will rise
c) The digestion and absorption of fats is impaired

8. Concerning the major dietary constituents:
a) The body cannot store glucose.
b) All essential amino acids are found in meat.
c) Plant oils mainly consist of saturated fats.
d) Ketones are likely to be present in the urine of an individual eating a predominantly carbohydrate diet.
ans (b) All essential amino acids are found in meat.

9. Regarding dietary requirements of the major foodstuffs:
a) Adults can synthesize all of the amino acids found in proteins.
b) Children who have a protein deficient diet may develop kwashiorkor.
c) Edema is a characteristic feature of marasmus.
d) People whose diets are low in fats often suffer from fatty acid deficiency diseases.
ans (b) Children who have a protein deficient diet may develop kwashiorkor.

10. Concerning disorders due to vitamin deficiency or excess:
a) Excess intake of vitamin A can cause severe toxic reactions.
b) Vitamin B2 deficiency may cause severe muscular disorders.
c) Vitamin B12 deficiency results in microcytic anemia.
d) Rickets can be prevented by large doses of vitamin C.
ans (a) Excess intake of vitamin A can cause severe toxic reactions.

11. Regarding body weight and the diet:
a) A person suffering from bulimia nervosa is likely to be severely underweight.
b) An individual with a BMI of 25 kg m-2 is overweight.
c) A growing child may have a BMI significantly below 18 kg m-2 and yet be perfectly healthy.
d) Positive nitrogen balance occurs when protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis
ans (c) A growing child may have a BMI significantly below 18 kg m-2 and yet be perfectly healthy.

12. Activation of the salivary sympathetic nerves inhibits salivary secretion
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

13. The myenteric plexus lies between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the gut wall.
a) True
b) False
ans (a) True

14. The enteric nervous system is innervated by post-ganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers.
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

15. All gastrointestinal structures have three layers of smooth muscle their muscularis externa
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

16. Regarding salivary secretion and swallowing:
a) The food bolus is propelled down the esophagus by segmentation movements.
b) The pH of saliva rises as its rate of secretion increases.
c) Swallowing is a purely voluntary activity.
d) Hormones are more important than nerves in the regulation of salivary secretion
ans (b) The pH of saliva rises as its rate of secretion increases.

17. Regarding the control of gastric secretion:
a) Gastric acid is secreted by parietal cells of the gastric glands in response to hormonal stimulation.
b) Most of the secretion of acid and pepsinogen occurs during the intestinal phase.
c) Gastric secretion does not begin until food enters the stomach.
d) Secretin secreted by the duodenum stimulates gastric secretion.
ans (a) Gastric acid is secreted by parietal cells of the gastric glands in response to hormonal stimulation.

18. Parietal cells of the gastric glands secrete intrinsic factor
a) True
b) False
ans (a) True

19. Intrinsic factor is required for the intestinal absorption of vitamin D in the upper ileum
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

20. Regarding gastric motility:
a) Gastric emptying is inhibited by the enterogastric reflex
b) The antral region of the stomach is important for the storage of food.
c) Contractions of the stomach wall do not begin until food enters the stomach.
d) The contractions of the stomach depend on activity in the vagus nerve.
ans (a) Gastric emptying is inhibited by the enterogastric reflex

21. Regarding pancreatic secretion:
a) Pancreatic secretion is inhibited by gastrin secreted by the G cells of the antrum
b) Pancreatic acinar cells contain trypsin.
c) Cholecystokinin inhibits secretion from the exocrine pancreas.
d) The introduction of acid into the duodenum stimulates pancreatic secretion.
ans (d) The introduction of acid into the duodenum stimulates pancreatic secretion.

22. Regarding digestion and absorption by the small intestine:
a) Intestinal digestive enzymes are secreted by cells of the crypts of Lieberkuhn.
b) About half of the digested carbohydrate is absorbed in the small intestine.
c) Small peptides are absorbed in the small intestine
d) The liver is the first organ to receive the digestion products of dietary fats.
ans (c) Small peptides are absorbed in the small intestine

23. Regarding gastro-intestinal function:
a) The presence of large amounts of fat in the chyme will accelerate gastric emptying.
b) Distension of the ileum stimulates gastric motility.
c) Total gastrectomy leads to malabsorption of vitamin B12.
d) Aldosterone inhibits the absorption of sodium and water by the large intestine
ans (c) Total gastrectomy leads to malabsorption of vitamin B12.

24. Defecation is a reflex action
a. That is coordinated by reflex centers in the sacral cord.
b. Whose afferent limb carries impulses from stretch receptors in the colon
c. Whose efferent limb travels mainly in sympathetic autonomic nerves
d. Which is more likely to be initiated just after a meal than just before it
e. Which can be voluntarily inhibited or facilitated
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

25. Swallowing is a reflex which
a. Has its reflex centers in the cervical segments of the spinal cord
b. Includes inhibition of respiration
c. Is initiated by a voluntary act
d. Is dependent on intrinsic nerve networks in the esophagus
e. Is more effective when the person is standing rather than when lying down
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

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