Gastrointestinal Physiology MCQ

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1. The normally innervated stomach
A. Is stimulated to secrete gastric juice when food is chewed, even if it is not swallowed.
B. Cannot secrete HCl when its H1 histamine receptors are blocked.
C. And the denervated stomach can secrete gastric juice after a meal is ingested.
D. Empties more quickly than the denervated stomach.
E. Is stimulated to secrete gastric juice by the hormone secretin
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

2. The passage of gastric contents to the duodenum may cause
A. Copious secretion of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate
B. Decreased gastric motility
C. Contraction of the gallbladder
D. Contraction of the sphincter of Oddi
E. Release of pancreozymin.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

3. Bile salts
A. Are the only constituents of bile necessary for digestion.
B. Have a characteristic molecule, part water-soluble and part fat-soluble.
C. Are reabsorbed mainly in the upper small intestine.
D. Are derived from cholesterol.
E. Inhibit bile secretion by the liver
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. False

4. Absorption of
A. Fat is impaired if either bile or pancreatic juice is not available.
B. Undigested protein molecules can occur in the newborn.
C. Laevo-amino acids occurs more rapidly than absorption of the dextro-forms.
D. Iron is at a rate proportional to body needs.
E. Sodium is at a rate proportional to body needs.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. False

5. One gram of
A. Carbohydrate, metabolized in the body, yields the same energy as when oxidized in a bomb calorimeter.
B. Fat, metabolized in the body, yields 10 per cent more energy than 1g of carbohydrate.
C. Protein, metabolized in the body, yields the same energy as when oxidized in a bomb calorimeter.
D. Carbohydrate, metabolized in the body, yields about the same energy as 1g of protein
E. Protein per kg body weight is an adequate daily protein intake for a sedentary adult.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

6. Cholesterol
A. Can be absorbed from the gut by intestinal lymphatics following its incorporation into chylomicrons
B. Can be synthesized in the liver.
C. In the diet comes mainly from vegetable sources.
D. Is eliminated from the body mainly by metabolic degradation.
E. Is a precursor of adrenal cortical hormones.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. False
E. True

7. The risk of developing gallstones increases
A. When cholesterol micelles are formed in the gall bladder.
B. As the bile salt:cholesterol ratio increases.
C. As the lecithin:cholesterol ratio increases.
D. When supplementary bile salts are taken by mouth.
E. In patients with haemolytic anaemia.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

8. Modifying gastric function
A. By cutting vagal fibres to the pylorus increases the emptying rate.
B. By enlarging the pyloric orifice increases the emptying rate.
C. By making a side-to-side anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum may cause peptic ulceration in the jejeunum.
D. To allow rapid gastric emptying may lead to low blood glucose levels after a meal.
E. To allow rapid gastric emptying may lead to a fall in blood volume and blood pressure after a large meal.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

9. Impaired intestinal absorption of
A. Iron occurs frequently following removal of most of the stomach.
B. Iodide leads to a reduction in size of the thyroid gland.
C. Water occurs in infants who cannot digest disaccharides.
D. Calcium may occur following removal of the terminal ileum.
E. Bile salts may occur following removal of the terminal ileum.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

10. Peptic ulcer pain is typically relieved by
A. Raising the pH of the fluid bathing the ulcer
B. Oral administration of sodium bicarbonate
C. Oral administration of a non-absorbable antacid
D. A drug, which interferes with the action of acetylcholinesterase
E. A drug, which blocks the gastric proton pump
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

11. Fat stores in the adult
A. Make up less than 5 per cent of average body weight
B. Make up a smaller percentage of body weight in women than in men
C. Release fatty acids when there is increased sympathetic nerve activity.
D. Release fatty acids when insulin is injected.
E. Enlarge by increasing the number of adipocytes they contain.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. False

12. Intestinal obstruction causes
A. Constipation
B. Crampy pain due to intermittent vigorous peristalsis
C. Distension due to fluid and gas proximal to the obstruction
D. Hypotension
E. Vomiting which is more severe with low than with high bowel obstruction.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. False

13. The cause of jaundice is likely to be
A. Liver disease, if albumin is low and bilirubin mainly unconjugated.
B. Bile duct obstruction, if the urine is paler than normal.
C. Hemolysis, if the prothrombin level is below normal.
D. Hemolysis, if the urine is darker than normal.
E. A post-hepatic cause, if the bilirubin level in the blood is high.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. False

14. Complications that may arise after total gastrectomy include
A. Inadequate food intake
B. Depletion of vitamin B12 stores in the liver
C. Malabsorption of fat due to rapid intestinal transit
D. Impaired defecation due to loss of the gastrocolic reflex
E. Inability to digest protein
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

15. Severe diarrhea causes a decrease in
A. Body potassium
B. Body sodium
C. Extracellular fluid volume
D. Total peripheral resistance
E. Blood pH
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

16. Diminished liver function may result in an increase in the
A. Albumin to globulin ratio in the blood
B. Size of male breasts
C. Level of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood
D. Tendency to bleed
E. Variability of the blood glucose level
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

17. Peptic ulceration tends to heal after
A. Division of the vagal nerve supply to the stomach
B. Surgical removal of the pyloric antrum
C. Glucocorticoid drug treatment
D. Elimination of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori from the stomach
E. Treatment with histamine H2 blocking drugs
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

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