Endocrine Physiology MCQ Questions And Answers

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1. Which of the following statements regarding the adrenal gland are correct? [Select all that apply]
a) Chromaffin cells are found in the adrenal medulla
b) Excess secretion of catecholamines will lead to hypertension.
c) The heart rate is reduced by circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline.
d) Increased catecholamine secretion stimulates lipolysis.
e) Adrenaline and noradrenaline are secreted by the adrenal cortex.
ans
a) Chromaffin cells are found in the adrenal medulla
b) Excess secretion of catecholamines will lead to hypertension.
d) Increased catecholamine secretion stimulates lipolysis.

2. Which of the following statements regarding the adrenal cortex are correct? [Select all that apply]
a) The adrenal cortex secretes both peptide and steroid hormones
b) The adrenal cortex will atrophy following removal of the anterior pituitary gland
c) Aldosterone plays a role in the regulation of plasma calcium
d) The secretion of cortisol peaks at around 6 a.m. each day
e) Cortisol is a hyperglycemic hormone
ans
b) The adrenal cortex will atrophy following removal of the anterior pituitary gland
d) The secretion of cortisol peaks at around 6 a.m. each day
e) Cortisol is a hyperglycemic hormone

3. Which of the following statements regarding parathyroid hormone (PTH) are correct? [Select all that apply]
a) Normal plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulate osteoblast activity
b) PTH decreases calcium excretion from the body
c) PTH directly increases calcium absorption by the gut.
d) PTH is secreted in response to elevated plasma calcium levels.
e) High levels of circulating PTH demineralize bone and elevate plasma calcium
ans
a) Normal plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulate osteoblast activity
b) PTH decreases calcium excretion from the body
e) High levels of circulating PTH demineralize bone and elevate plasma calcium

4. Which of the following statements regarding the thyroid gland are correct? [Select all that apply]
a) A person with hypothyroidism has a low plasma TSH concentration.
b) Calcitonin is secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
c) An inactive thyroid gland will contain more colloid than an active one.
d) Calcitonin stimulates the activity of osteoclasts.
e) Calcitonin is a steroid hormone.
ans
b) Calcitonin is secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
c) An inactive thyroid gland will contain more colloid than an active one.

5. Which of the following statements concerning thyroid function are correct? Select all that apply.
a) T3 and T4 stimulate the secretion of TSH by the anterior pituitary
b) People who have an under-active thyroid gland have a low BMR
c) A resting pulse rate of 65 beats per minute would suggest a diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis
d) Most of the iodide in the body is present in the thyroid gland
e) Thyroid hormones are essential for the early development and maturation of the central nervous system
ans
b) People who have an under-active thyroid gland have a low BMR
d) Most of the iodide in the body is present in the thyroid gland
e) Thyroid hormones are essential for the early development and maturation of the central nervous system

6. Nerve endings within the ______ ________ of the hypothalamus secrete releasing hormones
ans – Median eminence

7. The prolactin inhibitory hormone is ________
ans – dopamine

8. ACTH secretion exhibits a _________ rhythm
ans – circadian [Circadian, 24-hour or diurnal]

9. Anti-diuretic hormone is an alternative name for ___________
ans – vasopressin

10. The anterior pituitary ______________ are follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
ans – gonadotropins

11. An increase in thyroxine secretion will cause a ________ in the secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).
ans – decrease

12. An alternative name for the ________ pituitary is the adenohypophysis.
ans – anterior

13. ________ stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor.
ans – oxytocin

14. The somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary secrete ______ _______.
ans – growth hormone

15. Which of the following statements relating to anterior pituitary hormones are correct? [Select all that apply]
a) LH and FSH secretion are controlled by different hypothalamic releasing hormones
b) TSH and GH are both glycoproteins.
c) LH and FSH are collectively known as the gonadotrophins.
d) GH and prolactin have close structural similarity.
e) MSH is derived from the same precursor as ACTH.
ans
c) LH and FSH are collectively known as the gonadotrophins.
d) GH and prolactin have close structural similarity.
e) MSH is derived from the same precursor as ACTH.

16. Which of the following statements relating to the pituitary hormones are correct? [select all that apply]
a) Oxytocin stimulates the secretion and synthesis of milk by the mammary glands.
b) Prolactin stimulates the synthesis of milk by the mammary glands.
c) Lack of vasopressin (ADH) will result in excessive production of urine.
d) The secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH) are regulated by releasing hormones secreted by the hypothalamus.
e) ACTH stimulates the output of hormones from the adrenal medulla.
ans
b) Prolactin stimulates the synthesis of milk by the mammary glands.
c) Lack of vasopressin (ADH) will result in excessive production of urine.

17. Which of the following statements regarding the hypothalamic hormones are correct? [select all that apply]
a) Hypothalamic releasing hormones are synthesized and secreted by neurons
b) Blood flows from the anterior pituitary to the hypothalamus in portal vessels.
c) The hypothalamic releasing hormones reach the general circulation in significant amounts
d) Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus is likely to lead to a rise in the secretion of prolactin
e) Growth hormone secretion is regulated by GHRH
ans
a) Hypothalamic releasing hormones are synthesized and secreted by neurons
d) Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus is likely to lead to a rise in the secretion of prolactin
e) Growth hormone secretion is regulated by GHRH

18. In diabetic ketosis there is a decreased metabolic breakdown of
A. Ketones
B. Glycogen
C. Glucose
D. Fat
E. Amino acids
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. False

19. A patient with severe diabetic ketoacidosis is likely to benefit from administration of
A. Intragastric fluids
B. Intravenous insulin
C. Isotonic glucose
D. Isotonic sodium chloride
E. Oxygen by breathing mask if hyperventilation is present.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. False

20. Impaired growth hormone secretion
A. In children causes delayed puberty.
B. In children leads to short stature with more stunting of the limbs than the trunk.
C. Is associated with pale, fine and soft skin.
D. In adults leads to a reduction in the size of the viscera.
E. Can be treated effectively with bovine growth hormone.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. False

21. Parathormone secretion is usually increased
A. In patients with chronic renal failure
B. In people taking excessive amounts of vitamin D
C. In patients with anterior pituitary tumors secreting excessive amounts of its hormones
D. When blood phosphate levels fall
E. When plasma protein levels fall
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. False

22. An oral glucose tolerance test in a patient with
A. Diabetes mellitus shows a higher than normal fasting blood glucose level.
B. Diabetes mellitus shows glycosuria when blood glucose is three times the normal fasting level.
C. Diabetes mellitus shows a delayed return to the fasting blood glucose level.
D. An insulin-secreting tumor shows no rise in blood glucose level during the test.
E. Malabsorption syndrome shows a lower than normal peak level for blood glucose.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

23. Surgical removal of the pituitary gland is likely to lead to a decrease in
A. Plasma osmolality
B. Menstrual frequency
C. Axillary hair
D. Sexual desire (libido)
E. Breast size
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

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