Physiology of Lactation

Physiology of lactation This article ‘physiology of lactation’ highlights the stages of lactation in humans, the mechanism of lactation. After reading this article, you would understand the physiology of lactation and outline the process of lactation. Finally, this article shall soon be available in other file formats, such as physiology of lactation pdf; physiology of […]

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Write Short Notes on the Cessation of Milk Production at Weaning

When the mother weans the infant, two mechanisms contribute to the cessation of milk production. Without suckling, prolactin secretion is not stimulated, removing the primary stimulus for continued milk synthesis and secretion. Because there is no suckling, and thus, no oxytocin release, milk letdown does not occur. Since milk production does not stop abruptly, milk […]

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What are the Advantages of Breast-feeding to the Mother?

In addition to its benefits to the infant, breast-feeding is also advantageous to the mother. Oxytocin release triggered by suckling enhances uterine involution thereby preventing uterine bleeding Suckling, in addition, suppresses the menstrual cycle by inhibiting LH and FSH secretion, probably by inhibiting GnRH. Lactation, thus, tends to prevent ovulation, decreasing the likelihood of another […]

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What are the Advantages of Breast-feeding to the Infant?

First, let us consider the composition of breast milk Breast milk is composed of: Water Triglyceride fat the Carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar) a number of proteins Vitamins Minerals (calcium and phosphate) In addition to the nutrients breast milk contains a host of immune cells, antibodies, and other chemicals that protect the infant against infection until […]

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Describe the Hormonal Factors that Play a role in Lactation

Milk is essential for survival of the newborn. So, during gestation the mammary glands, or breast, are prepared for lactation (milk production). The breasts in non-pregnant women consist mostly of adipose tissue and rudimentary duct system. Physiologic anatomy of the mammary gland (breast) A mammary gland is composed of about 20 milk-secreting lobules, each made […]

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What is Uterine Involution?

After parturition, the uterus shrinks to its pre-gestational size in a process called involution. Involution takes four to six weeks to complete. During involution, the remaining endometrial tissue not expelled with the placenta gradually disintegrates and sloughs off, producing a vaginal discharge called lochia that continues for three to six weeks following delivery. Some women […]

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What Hormones does the Placenta Secrete

The placenta secretes both peptide and steroid hormones. The major hormones secreted by the placenta are: Human chorionic gonadotropin Estrogen Progesterone Human placental lactogen Placenta serves as the main endocrine organ of pregnancy. (A) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (hCG) One of the first endocrine events is secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin by the developing chorion. Human […]

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