Inflammatory cells II

Vascular endothelial cells forms more than just a passive channel for blood Before now, scientists believed that vascular endothelium acts only as a passive barrier between blood and tissues and plays no active role in inflammation. However, current knowledge reveals that vascular endothelium and vascular endothelial cells synthesize and release a number of biologically active […]

Continue reading


Inflammatory cells I

Perhaps not only white blood cells participate in inflammation, but, other cells of the body such as tissue mast cells, tissue macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells equally play crucial roles in the inflammatory process. The four most important inflammatory cells are neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and vascular endothelial cells. Neutrophils, the quick response troops of inflammation […]

Continue reading


Chronic inflammation

Chronic inflammation Some microbial infections can result in chronic inflammation, most especially infections with organisms such as metazoan parasites, fungi and mycobacteria. Moreover, autoimmune diseases, transplantation, and allergy can induce chronic inflammation. Generally, chronic inflammation occurs if acute inflammation fails to resolve on its own. Acute inflammation will fail to resolve if the inciting stimulus […]

Continue reading


Cell-adhesion molecules, their role in leukocyte extravasation during acute inflammation

Leukocyte extravasation is the process of movement of leukocytes out of the blood vessels into tissue spaces. Normally leukocytes circulate in blood vessels and come out of the vessels randomly into tissue spaces, scanning the tissues for foreign substances before returning to blood vessels. From the tissue spaces, leukocytes drain into lymph and travel in […]

Continue reading


Inflammatory mediators II

Plasma-derived inflammatory mediators Plasma contains two important interconnected systems that produce inflammatory mediators. The systems are: Kinin system Complement system Upon tissue damage which could result from infection, these systems Most components of these systems circulate in plasma in functionally inactive form, upon tissue damage, which could result from infection; these components of these systems […]

Continue reading


Histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes in acute inflammation

One significant thing about inflammation is that whatever the trigger may be, the tissue changes that occur during inflammation are the same. In other words, inflammation may occur resulting from injury, trauma, infection, burns or radiation, but irrespective of what might trigger an acute inflammation, the ongoing local tissue inflammation follows a certain pattern. The […]

Continue reading


Inflammation – causes, events, significance, and consequences

Acute inflammation Inflammation is a complex series of events that occurs in vascularized living tissues in response to local injury or tissue damage. Inflammation is a programmed local tissue response that is peculiar to vascularized living tissues.In other words, inflammation is the response of vascularized tissues to local disturbances. The trigger for inflammation is tissue […]

Continue reading