Compare the absorptive state with the postabsorptive state with regards to the handling of nutrient molecules

  Always choose to present your information in tabular form whenever you comparing two concepts/phenomena. This has one major advantage: it helps you to present your point in a clear and concise manner. (You may be willing to understand first what nutrient molecules are before moving on. Nutrient molecules are the building blocks of all […]

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Distinguish between the absorptive and postabsorptive state of metabolism

Two functional metabolic states – the absorptive state and the postabsorptive state – relate to eating and fasting cycles respectively.   ABSORPTIVE STATE/FED STATE The absorptive state represents the time immediately after a meal when ingested nutrient molecules are being absorbed into the blood. This state is also called fed state. During this time, glucose […]

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Distinguish between Type-I and Type-II Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus has two major variants: type I diabetes mellitus marked by a lack of insulin secretion, and type II diabetes marked by a normal or even increased insulin secretion but reduced responsiveness of insulin target cells to its presence.   You could choose to distinguish the two disorders under the following headings: level of […]

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Describe the consequences of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, the commonest endocrine disorder, results from insulin deficiency whereas diabetes insipidus results from vasopressin. The acute consequences of diabetes mellitus (D.M) can be categorized according to the effects of inadequate insulin action on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. CONSEQUENCES OF D.M RELATING TO EFFECTS ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM Hyperglycemia The defining feature of D.M […]

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Compare the functions of insulin with those of glucagon

Insulin and glucagon are antagonistic hormones secreted by the endocrine pancreas. They mainly exert opposing effects on various body functions. Tip – whenever you are comparing two things, ensure to tabulate your writing. This makes your work easier for both you and the examiner who shall grade your paper. When presented in a tabular form, […]

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Give brief highlights of cells that make up the endocrine pancreas and their hormones

Pancreas is an organ made up of both endocrine and exocrine portions. The exocrine portion secretes a watery alkaline solution and digestive enzymes through the pancreatic duct into the GI tract lumen. Scattered throughout the pancreas between the exocrine cells are “islands” or cluster of endocrine cells called the islets of Langerhans. Pancreatic endocrine cell […]

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Discuss the major disorders in calcium metabolism

Discuss the major disorder in calcium metabolism   MAJOR DISORDER IN CALCIUM METABOLISM The major disorders that affect Ca2+ metabolism are too much or too little PTH or deficiency of vitamin D. There are three main disorders of Ca2+ metabolism : PTH hypersecretion, PTH hyposecretion, and Vitamin D deficiency   PTH HYPERSECRETION (HYPOPARATHYROIDISM) PTH hypersecretion […]

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Evaluate the contribution of calcitonin to calcium metabolism

Contribution of calcitonin to calcium metabolism   Chemical nature/cell of origin Calcitonin is a peptide (a 32-amino acid peptide) produced by the C cells of the thyroid gland. Actions The actions of calcitonin are opposite those of parathyroid hormone. This hormone exerts an influence on plasma Ca2+ concentration. Acting on the bone, calcitonin decrease plasma […]

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Discuss the contribution of parathyroid hormone to Ca2+ metabolism

Contribution of parathyroid hormone to Ca2+ metabolism In addition to regulating the amount of organic nutrient molecules in blood by adjusting anabolic and catabolic pathways, the endocrine system also controls the plasma concentrations of a number of inorganic electrolytes. Calcium and phosphate metabolism is under the control of three hormones – parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and […]

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