Factors that Influence Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

In this article, we examine the different factors that influence basal metabolic rate (BMR). Some of the factors include body temperature, age, sex, race, emotional state, climate and circulating levels of hormones such as catecholamine’s (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and thyroid hormones. How do you define Basal Metabolic Rate? Basal metabolic rate (BMR) refers to the […]

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Growth Hormone; Production, Functions and Control

In this article, we discuss growth hormone under the following headings, Chemical Nature, Functions, Control, deficiency and excess. Overview Human growth hormone (hGH, somatropin) is a polypeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays important metabolic roles which include stimulation of cellular uptake of amino acids and protein synthesis. Among the many […]

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Physiology of Lactation

Physiology of lactation This article ‘physiology of lactation’ highlights the stages of lactation in humans, the mechanism of lactation. After reading this article, you would understand the physiology of lactation and outline the process of lactation. Finally, this article shall soon be available in other file formats, such as physiology of lactation pdf; physiology of […]

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Physiology MCQs – Endocrine Physiology [MBBS]

MBBS FIRST PROFESSIONAL PART-I EXAMINATION [2015] Physiology (MCQs) – Endocrine Physiology MODEL QUESTIONS   1. The concentration of ionized calcium in plasma is A. The main regulator of parathormone secretion. B. Less than the free ionized calcium concentration in intracellular fluid. C. About 50 per cent of the total plasma calcium concentration. D. Reduced when […]

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Describe the causes and symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency is a general term for any condition in which plasma levels of cortisol are chronically lower than normal. CORTISOL AND ALDOSTERONE ARE ESSENTIAL TO LIFE Cortisol is one of the few hormones essential for life. (The four hormones essential to life: insulin, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, and aldosterone: because these hormones are essential to […]

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Describe the Causes and Symptoms of Adrenogenital Syndrome

ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME Adrenogenital syndrome is a term that refers to the pronounced effect that abnormally high levels of adrenal sex hormones have on the genitalia and associated sexual characteristics. Excess adrenal androgens secretion has masculinizing effects and is more common than the extremely rare feminizing condition seen in excess adrenal estrogen secretion. Either of masculinizing […]

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Describe the causes and symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome

CUSHING’S SYNDROME Cushing’s syndrome is an endocrine disorder in which there is excess cortisol in the blood even when the individual is a stress-free state. In this syndrome, the adrenal gland secretes excessive cortisol. CAUSES The cause may be primary or secondary defect. A primary defect such as adrenal tumors that uncontrolled produce and release […]

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Describe the Causes and Symptoms of Hyperaldosteronism

HYPERALDOSTERONISM Hyperaldosteronism refers to excess aldosterone secretion. Excess aldosterone secretion may result from: a hypersecreting adrenal tumor of the aldosterone-secreting cells (Conn’s syndrome or primary hyperaldosteronism), or Inappropriately high activity of the renin-angiotensin system (secondary hyperaldosteronism) Hyperaldosteronism can thus be either primary (as in when the adrenal cortex is secreting too much of the hormone […]

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Define Fuel Metabolism, Anabolism, and Catabolism

FUEL METABOLISM Metabolism refers to all the chemical reactions that occur within the cells of the body. Fuel metabolism refers to those reactions that involve the degradation, synthesis, and interconversions among the three classes of energy-rich organic molecules (carbohydrate, protein, and fat). Fuel metabolism is also called intermediary metabolism.   ANABOLISM This refers to the […]

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