Describe the Indirect Technique of Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure by Means of a Sphygmomanometer

How to Measure Blood Pressure Using a Sphygmomanometer The changes in arterial pressure throughout the cardiac cycle can be measured directly by connecting a pressure-measuring device to a needle inserted in an artery. However, it is more convenient and reasonably accurate to measure the pressure indirectly through use of a sphygmomanometer, an externally applied inflatable […]

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Describe the Relationships among Flow Rate, Pressure Gradient, and Vascular Resistance

Flow Rate, Pressure Gradient, and Vascular Resistance Flow rate: Flow rate of blood through a vessel, which refers to the volume of blood passing through per unit time, is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to vascular resistance: F = ∆P/R Where F = flow rate of blood through a vessel ∆P […]

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Compare blood flow through reconditioning organs and through organs that do not recondition the blood

What are Reconditioning Organs? The following are the reconditioning organs of the body: Intestines Kidneys; and Skin The intestines, kidneys, and the skin are called reconditioning organs because they ‘refresh’, or recondition’ blood that flows through them. These organs normally receive blood flow in excess of their needs. Intestines recondition blood by picking up digested […]

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Write short notes on automaticity, conductivity, and contractility of cardiac muscle cells

Restricted*                                                         Physiology exam (theory)   Question – Write short notes on automaticity, conductivity, and contractility of cardiac muscle cells                                  – 15 marks   The examiner wants you to write short notes three properties of cardiac muscle cells namely: automaticity Conductivity Contractility   Potential […]

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PHS 213 lectures summary (blood vessel and cardiac output)

Important facts, you should know, about the vascular system Thoracic vena cava is the largest diameter vessel Systemic aorta is the vessel with the greatest wall thickness Capillaries possess both the smallest diameter and the least wall thickness Capillaries have the greatest total cross-sectional area (TCSA) Systemic aorta has the smallest total cross-sectional area Veins […]

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Total Cross-sectional Area of different Vascular Groups and its Implication on the Velocity of Blood Flow

This post examines blood velocity in arteries veins and capillaries, and how the total cross sectional area of blood vessels affect the velocity in different vascular groups. At the end of this post, our readers would understand why the aorta has the highest velocity of blood flow. Thus, in the following paragraphs, we shall be […]

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The control of arteriolar resistance

  Local control of arteriolar radius is significant in determining the distribution of cardiac output   The term local controls (intrinsic controls) denote mechanisms independent of nerves or hormones through which organs and tissues alter and regulate their own arteriolar resistances, thus self-regulating their blood flows. Although local controls do not include hormonal or neural […]

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