Blood Physiology MCQs Questions and Answers

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1. Normal human red cells:
a) Are released into the circulation as immature cells called reticulocytes.
b) Live in the blood for about 10 days.
c) Rely on mitochondria for their ATP production.
d) Are formed by budding off from large precursor cells called megakaryocytes.
ans (a) Normal human red cells are released into the circulation as immature cells called reticulocytes.

2. The following statements refer to gas carriage by the blood
a) After leaving the lungs, each liter of blood contains about 20 ml of oxygen.
b) Hemoglobin is half saturated with oxygen when the PO2 is about 3.3 kPa (25 mm Hg) when PCO2 is 5.3 kPa (40 mm Hg),
c) As the PCO2 rises, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is increased
d) Each liter of arterial blood contains about 50 ml of carbon dioxide
ans (b) Hemoglobin is half saturated with oxygen when the PO2 is about 3.3 kPa (25 mm Hg) when PCO2 is 5.3 kPa (40 mm Hg),

3. Which of the following statements regarding the platelets is correct?
a) In the blood they are present in greater number than red cells.
b) They secrete the main clotting factors.
c) They will adhere to the walls of damaged blood vessels.
d) They aggregate in the presence of prostacyclin.
ans (c) They will adhere to the walls of damaged blood vessels.

4. Neutrophils are agranulocytes
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

5. Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of factor IX
a) True
b) False
ans (a) True

6. People with blood group AB have antibodies to both A and B red cell antigens
a) True
b) False
ans (b) False

7. The following statements refer to the mechanisms of hemostasis [Select all true statements]
a) Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways lead to the activation of Factor X
b) All the clotting factors are produced by the liver
c) Coagulation can be prevented by adding EDTA or citrate to a sample of blood
d) Hemostasis is impaired when the platelet count falls below 20 ×109 l-1
e) Failure of hemostasis is always caused by a deficiency of Factor VIII
f) Hemostasis is initiated when tissue factor comes into contact with blood
ans
a) Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways lead to the activation of Factor X
c) Coagulation can be prevented by adding EDTA or citrate to a sample of blood
d) Hemostasis is impaired when the platelet count falls below 20 ×109 l-1
f) Hemostasis is initiated when tissue factor comes into contact with blood

8. Antigens
A. Are usually proteins or polypeptide molecules
B. Can only be recognized by immune system cells previously exposed to that antigen.
C. Are normally absorbed from the gut via lymphatics and carried to mesenteric lymph nodes.
D. Induce a smaller immune response when protein synthesis is suppressed.
E. Are taken up by antigen-presenting macrophages, which activate the immune system.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

9. Blood eosinophils
A. Have agranular cytoplasm.
B. Are about a quarter of all leukocytes
C. Are relatively abundant in the mucosa of the respiratory, urinary and alimentary tracts.
D. Release cytokines.
E. Increase in number in viral infections.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

10. Normal blood clotting requires
A. Inactivation of heparin
B. Inactivation of plasmin (fibrinolysin)
C. Calcium ions
D. An adequate intake of vitamin K
E. An adequate intake of vitamin C
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

11. Antibodies (agglutinins) of the A and B red cell antigens (agglutinogens)
A. Are present in fetal plasma.
B. Cause hemolysis of RBCs containing the A and B antigens when added to a suspension of red cells in saline.
C. Do not normally cross the placental barrier.
D. Have a molecular weight in excess of 500 000.
E. Are monovalent
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. True
E. False

12. Lymph
A. Contains plasma proteins
B. Vessels are involved in the absorption of amino acids from the intestine.
C. Production increases during muscular activity.
D. Does not normally contain cells
E. Flow is aided by contraction of adjacent skeletal muscles.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

13. Blood platelets
A. Are formed in the bone marrow.
B. Are normally more numerous than white cells.
C. Have a small single-lobed nucleus.
D. Increase in number after injury and surgery.
E. Alter shape when in contact with collagen.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

14. The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
A. Is effected by prothrombin.
B. Involves the disruption of certain peptide linkages by a proteolytic enzyme.
C. Is followed by polymerization of fibrin monomers.
D. Is inhibited by heparin.
E. Is reversed by plasmin (fibrinolysin).
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. False

15. An appropriate dilution indicator for measuring
A. Total body water is sucrose.
B. Plasma volume is radioactive sodium.
C. Extracellular fluid volume is inulin.
D. Intracellular fluid volume directly is heavy water (deuterium oxide).
E. Total body potassium is radioactive potassium.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. True

16. Thirst can be
A. Produced by a rise in plasma tonicity
B. Produced by stimulation of certain areas in the hypothalamus
C. Produced by a fall in blood volume
D. Associated with decreased secretion of ADH
E. Relieved by water intake before the water has been absorbed from the gut.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. True

17. Intravenous infusion of
A. Two liters of normal saline restores blood volume in a patient who suddenly lost two liters of blood.
B. Bicarbonate is appropriate for patients being treated for cardiac and respiratory arrest.
C. Potassium-free fluids are appropriate for a patient with severe vomiting.
D. Isotonic glucose will expand both intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments.
E. Hypertonic saline will raise intracellular osmolality.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. False
D. True
E. True

18. Excessive tissue fluid (edema) in the legs may
A. Be associated with a raised extracellular fluid volume.
B. Result from hepatic disease.
C. Result from blockage of pelvic lymphatics.
D. Increase local interstitial fluid pressure.
E. Result from a high arterial blood pressure in the absence of heart failure.
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. False

19. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
A. Affects mainly babies of Rh-positive mothers
B. Occurs mainly in babies who lack D agglutinogen.
C. Causes jaundice which clears rapidly after birth.
D. Can be treated by transfusing the affected baby with Rh-positive blood.
E. Can be prevented by injecting the mother with anti-D agglutinins just after delivery.
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

20. The appearance of centrifuged blood may suggest that
A. Anemia is present if there is more plasma than packed cells.
B. The plasma lipid level is high.
C. The patient has jaundice.
D. Hemolysis has occurred.
E. The patient has leukemia.
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

21. Patients with moderate to severe anemia have a reduced
A. Cardiac output.
B. Incidence of vascular bruits
C. 2:3-diphosphoglycerate blood level.
D. Arterial PO2
E. Capacity to raise oxygen consumption in exercise
ans
A. False
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. True

22. Iron deficiency
A. Frequently follows persistent loss of blood from the body.
B. Is more common in men than in women.
C. May cause anemia by inhibiting the rate of multiplication of RBC stem cells
D. May cause large pale erythrocytes to appear in peripheral blood
E. Anemia should normally be treated by injections of iron
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. False
E. False

23. Severe reactions are likely after transfusion of blood group
A. A to a group B person
B. O to a group AB person
C. A to a group O person
D. A to a group AB person
E. O Rh- negative to a group AB Rh-positive person
ans
A. True
B. False
C. True
D. False
E. False

24. The hematocrit (packed cell volume)
A. May be obtained by centrifugation of blood.
B. May be calculated by multiplying the mean cell volume by the red cell count.
C. Rises in a patient who sustains widespread burns
D. Rises following injections of aldosterone
E. Rises in macrocytic megaloblastic anemias such as pernicious (B12 deficiency) anemia
ans
A. True
B. True
C. True
D. False
E. False

25. Red cell formation is increased
A. By giving vitamin B12 injections to healthy people on a normal diet
B. In blood donors one week after a blood donation
C. In patients with haemolytic anemia
D. By giving injections of erythropoietin to nephrectomized patients
E. In patients who have a raised blood reticulocyte count
ans
A. False
B. True
C. True
D. True
E. True

26. Vitamin B12 deficiency may
A. Result from disease of the terminal part of the ileum.
B. Result in anemia with small RBCs well filled with hemoglobin.
C. Cause wasting (atrophy) of the gastric mucosa.
D. Cause a reduction in the circulating platelet level.
E. Cause pathological changes in the central nervous system.
ans
A. True
B. False
C. False
D. True
E. True

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